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          特種挖掘機的種類及特點有哪些?

          日期:2023-03-10   來源:http://www.thesonriseranchgallery.com/
          一、特種挖掘機分類
          1、 Classification of special excavators
          1.物料挖掘類
          1. Material mining
          (1)水陸兩用挖掘機
          (1) Amphibious excavator
          水陸兩用挖掘機以普通挖掘機上車平臺為基礎,配備了中空浮箱式底盤,從而使其具有在沼澤、灘涂等松軟地面上行走、停駐、作業的能力。此類設備仍以鏟斗挖掘物料為主,在河道清淤、湖泊灘涂作業方面適應能力很強。
          The amphibious excavator is based on the common excavator loading platform and is equipped with a hollow floating box chassis, which enables it to walk, park and work on soft ground such as marsh and mudflat. This kind of equipment is still mainly used to excavate materials with buckets, and has strong adaptability in river dredging and lake mudflat operations.
          (2)加長臂型挖掘機
          (2) Extended arm excavator
          普通挖掘機通過更換加長的動臂、斗桿,即成為加長臂型挖掘機。加長臂型挖掘機能實現較大范圍的作業,廣泛用于河道疏浚、湖泊清潔、水庫維護等特殊工況,同時也可用大坡面的修繕工作。加長臂挖掘機用于水下挖掘時,為保證較好的視野,通常在斗桿上配置水下攝像頭,以便駕駛員隨時掌握鏟斗和物料狀態。
          An ordinary excavator becomes an extended-arm excavator by replacing the extended boom and stick. The extended-arm excavator can achieve a wide range of operations, and is widely used in river dredging, lake cleaning, reservoir maintenance and other special conditions, as well as the repair of large slope. When the extended-arm excavator is used for underwater excavation, in order to ensure a better view, the underwater camera is usually equipped on the dipper bar so that the driver can grasp the bucket and material status at any time.
          水陸兩用挖掘機與加長臂通過相互結合,形成優勢互補,能夠更好地完成灘涂和水下挖掘工作,是大型灘涂作業和維護的必備機械。圖1所示為某加長臂水陸兩用挖掘機。
          The amphibious excavator and the extended arm form complementary advantages by combining each other, which can better complete the mudflat and underwater excavation work. It is a necessary machine for large-scale mudflat operation and maintenance. Figure 1 shows a brand of extended-arm amphibious excavator.
          (4)貝殼斗
          (4) Shell hopper
          貝殼斗由于其外形和動作類似貝殼而得名,在斗形閉合時料斗可形成封閉的腔體。貝殼斗主要包含主機架、左斗、右斗和驅動液壓缸。貝殼斗類似于梅花抓斗,一般也只有開合動作。貝殼斗容量大但挖掘力小,為此主要用于輕質松散物料的裝卸和搬運,如用于港口、碼頭、煤場的裝沙、裝煤等。
          The shell hopper is named because its shape and action are similar to the shell. When the bucket is closed, the hopper can form a closed cavity. The shell bucket mainly includes the main frame, the left bucket, the right bucket and the drive hydraulic cylinder. The shell bucket is similar to the plum blossom bucket, and generally has only opening and closing actions. The shell bucket has a large capacity but a small digging force. Therefore, it is mainly used for loading, unloading and handling of light loose materials, such as sand loading and coal loading in ports, docks and coal yards.
          3.物料破裂與剪切類
          3. Material rupture and shearing
          挖掘機通過安裝不同屬具,不僅可以實現土石方等物料的搬運,還可以用于各種物料破碎、破裂、剪切等。物料破裂類挖掘機的屬具主要有3類,分別是破碎錘、液壓剪和裂土器。
          By installing different accessories, the excavator can not only realize the handling of earth-rock and other materials, but also be used for crushing, breaking, shearing, etc. of various materials. There are three main types of accessories of material breaking excavator, namely, breaking hammer, hydraulic shear and ripper.
          (1)破碎錘
          (1) Crushing hammer
          破碎錘又稱液壓破碎器,是挖掘機應用相當廣泛的一種特殊機具,主要用于建筑、道路拆除工程以及礦山石料破碎工作?,F在已經有很大一部分挖掘機,在出廠時都標配了液壓破碎管路。
          Crushing hammer, also known as hydraulic crusher, is a special tool widely used in excavators, mainly used in construction, road demolition works and mine stone crushing. Now, a large number of excavators are equipped with hydraulic crushing pipelines as standard when leaving the factory.
          (2)裂土器
          (2) Ripper
          普通挖掘機的鏟斗挖掘土方、碎石等相對松軟物料時,可輕松穿透基料從而實現挖掘,但當基料被長時間壓實或為整塊巖石,其則不能正常挖掘。遇到此種狀況,一般通過破碎等方法先碎裂表面后再進行挖掘。
          When the bucket of ordinary excavator excavates relatively soft materials such as earth and gravel, it can easily penetrate the base material to achieve excavation, but when the base material is compacted for a long time or is a whole rock, it cannot be excavated normally. In this case, the surface is generally broken by crushing and other methods before excavation.
          對普通挖掘機的動臂、斗桿等結構件進行強化、改進,將其挖掘力提高原來的2倍左右,再給其配裝單齒裂土器,該設備便能的破裂表面堅硬的物料。在特殊作業工況,這種設備不僅作業效率高,而且噪聲很小(遠小于破碎錘)。某特型挖掘機裂土施工。
          加長臂挖掘機出租
          Strengthen and improve the boom, bucket and other structural parts of the ordinary excavator, increase its digging force to about 2 times of the original, and then equip it with a single-tooth ripper, so that the equipment can effectively crack materials with hard surface. Under special working conditions, this equipment not only has high working efficiency, but also has low noise (far less than the breaking hammer). A special excavator is used to crack soil.
          (3)液壓剪
          (3) Hydraulic shear
          液壓剪具有和抓管機類似的結構,同樣具有回轉和開合2個動作。其工作原理如下:液壓缸輸出巨大的推力,通過機構放大后,在鉗口處形成極大的剪切力,以剪斷普通的鋼材、水泥等材料。液壓剪主要用于廢舊金屬剪切、汽車拆解、建筑物拆解等。將其安裝在多節超長臂的挖掘機上用以拆除高樓,便可產生另一類特種挖掘機——拆樓機。
          The hydraulic shear has a similar structure to the pipe grabbing machine, and also has two actions of turning and opening. Its working principle is as follows: the hydraulic cylinder outputs a huge thrust, which is amplified by the mechanism and forms a huge shear force at the jaw to cut off ordinary steel, cement and other materials. Hydraulic shear is mainly used for scrap metal cutting, automobile disassembly, building disassembly, etc. When it is installed on the excavator with multi-section and super-long arm to demolish tall buildings, another type of special excavator, the building demolition machine, can be produced.
          4.物料夯實類
          4. Material compaction
          在挖掘機上配裝上振動夯實器即可使其成為物料夯實類挖掘機。振動夯實器通過輸出周期性的沖擊力來實現特定的功能。振動夯實器可完成平面、斜面及其他復雜基礎面的夯實作業,將其與挖掘機配套使用,既可用于橋臺背、涵側、邊角轉折處、路肩堤壩的夯實,也可用于各種建筑溝槽、地基管道等城市輔助設施的夯實。
          A vibratory compactor can be equipped on the excavator to make it a material compaction excavator. Vibratory compactor can achieve specific functions by outputting periodic impact force. The vibratory compactor can complete the compaction of plane, slope and other complex foundation surfaces. It can be used in conjunction with excavators, not only for the compaction of abutment backs, culvert sides, corner turns, road shoulders and embankments, but also for the compaction of various construction ditches, foundation pipes and other urban auxiliary facilities.
          5.木料采伐集材類
          5. Timber cutting and skidding
          (1)采伐類
          (1) Logging
          對挖掘機進行適應性改進,并給其配裝采伐類屬具,即可實現采伐功能?,F代化的采伐類挖掘機(伐木機)作為一種林業聯合作業設備,不僅能伐木,同時還能打枝去皮、生產原條和原木。如圖6所示。
          The cutting function can be realized by improving the adaptability of the excavator and equipping it with cutting accessories. As a kind of forestry joint operation equipment, modern logging excavator (logging machine) can not only cut wood, but also cut branches and bark, and produce logs and logs. As shown in Figure 6.
          (2)集材類
          (2) Skidding
          在林場內,大尺寸木材常使用推土機或拖拉機、集材類挖掘機進行拖拽。對挖掘機進行適應性改進,給其加裝集材類屬具,便可將改裝為集材類挖掘機。如圖7所示。目前,國內主要挖掘機廠家如徐工、柳工、三一等都相應開發了此類產品。在陡坡、深溝等機器無法抵達的位置完成集材,需通過挖掘機搭截絞盤機完成。目前,已經實現這種功能的產品有小松PC200-8M0型挖掘機與卡特320D型挖掘機等。
          In the forest farm, large timber is often dragged by bulldozers or tractors, skidding excavators. The excavator can be converted into a skidding excavator by improving its adaptability and adding skidding accessories. As shown in Figure 7. At present, major domestic excavator manufacturers such as XCMG, Liugong and Sany have developed such products accordingly. To finish skidding at places where the machine cannot reach such as steep slopes and deep ditches, it is necessary to use the excavator to set up the winch. At present, the products that have achieved this function include Komatsu PC200-8M0 excavator and Carter 320D excavator.
          6.物料清理類
          6. Material cleaning
          液壓挖掘機搭載液壓開帶機,可用于清理灌木叢和低矮喬木等。除此之外,此類設備還可用于森林防火阻隔帶開設、林區道路的日常維護,以及河流應急阻隔帶、應急防火通道的開辟等。
          The hydraulic excavator is equipped with a hydraulic belt opener, which can be used to clean shrubs and low trees. In addition, such equipment can also be used for the opening of forest fire barriers, the daily maintenance of forest roads, and the opening of river emergency barriers and emergency fire passages.

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